Landscape and garden designs deal with the right treatment of land spaces not covered by buildings, and when those places are considered essential to visual experience. These land areas are typically of 4 kinds: those bordering as well as utility corridors and paralleling transportation such as power easements, waterways, freeways parkways; park-recreation open-space systems and areas; those between and around groups of buildings like cultural centers, civic and campuses, industrial and commercial complexes; and those related to single buildings like backyards, side yards, front yards or more-extend grounds. These areas might be of any size.
Even though usually created as vegetated green areas on normal ground, they may also include decks, roof gardens, covered malls, urban plazas and playgrounds, that may be almost entirely made by paving and construction.
Therefore, landscape and garden design works with a broad range of processed and natural materials able of holding up in a specific climate or weather conditions of the site. As a matter of fact, these materials include plants, water, rock and earth, either brought in or already existing on the site; and construction materials like glass, metal, tile, wood, brick, stone and concrete.
Nature, Science and Art
Landscape and garden designs are basically concerned with relations among nature, science and art. It operates at the frontier between nature and people, developing intermediate connecting zones between the external limits of the buildings, engineering structures, as well as the natural processes and forms which surround them. If landscape and garden designs have interrelations with nature and humankind, it is largely identified by conflicting philosophers.
People actually know that they are physiologically and biologically the products of evolution, yet their amazing technological accomplishments eventually lead to feel that they’re above, outside or beyond nature, that they have dominated and conquered the wilderness. Aside from that, every work of landscape and garden design reflects one or some other conflicting attitudes. For example, the Japanese garden is inspired by the idea of humans being part of the nature. Landscape and garden design reveal much about the period and the culture, as well.
In addition to that, a landscape and garden design made by a landscaper is an art considering that it is made for people experiences which uplift their spirits, invigorate their lives and expand their vision. It is also a science since it develops accurate knowledge of its materials and processes.
And it’s directly expressive and related to nature considering it incorporates natural scenes and materials. Nature, science and art become most closely interlocked in a particular aspect of horticulture displayed in designed landscapes and gardens: in improved varieties of woody and herbaceous plants; in cultural practices which stimulate their optimum contributions to the scene; as well as in the skills and techniques for reshaping and directing the forms of the plants – in a broad range from topiary (careful sculptural cutting) and trimmed hedges through espaliered (trained to thrive against trellis or walls) and pollarded trees, to ultimate refinements like the Japanese practice of getting rid of every single needles from pine trees.